The history is ten considered under History the family or legal history.
Ancient Near East
Many cultures have legends concerning the origins The way in which a is conducted and its rules and ramifications has changed over time as has the institution itself depending on the culture or demographic. (E) permanent residency and immigration status A creditor may inquire about the permanent residency and immigration status an applicant or any other person in connection with a credit transion [Codified to 12 C.F.R § 1002.5] § 1002.6 Rules concerning evaluation applications These rights and obligations vary considerably between societies and between groups within society. These might include arranged s family obligations the legal establishment a nuclear family unit the legal protection children and public declaration commitment. Some critics object to what they see as propaganda in relation to – from the government religious organizations the media – which aggressively promote as a solution for all social problems; such propaganda includes for instance promotion in schools where children especially girls are bombarded with positive information about being presented only with the information prepared by authorities. (4) enforcement proceedings and investigations A creditor shall retain the information beyond 25 months (12 months for business credit except as provided in paragraph (b)(5) this section) if the creditor has ual notice that it is under investigation or is subject to an enforcement proceeding for an alleged violation the or this part by the Attorney General the United States or by an enforcement agency charged with monitoring that creditor's compliance with the and this part or if it has been served with notice an ion filed pursuant to section 706 the and § this part The creditor shall retain the information until final disposition the matter unless an earlier time is allowed by order the agency. Women's health is more strongly imped than men's by marital conflict or satisfion such that unhappily married women do not enjoy better health relative to their single counterparts. Most research on and health has focused on heterosexual couples; more work is needed to clarify the health imps same-sex  (3) reimbursement A creditor shall not charge an applicant for providing a copy appraisals and other written valuations as required under this section but may require applicants to pay a reasonable fee to reimburse the creditor for the cost the appraisal or other written valuation unless otherwise provided by law (4) Withdrawn denied or incomplete applications The requirements set forth in paragraph (a)(1) this section apply whether credit is extended or denied or if the application is incomplete or withdrawn (5) Copies in electronic form The copies required by § (a)(1) may be provided to the applicant in electronic form subject to compliance with the consumer consent and other applicable provisions the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce (E-Sign ) (15 U.S.C 7001. (B) securities credit (1) Securities credit refers to extensions credit subject to regulation under section 7 the Securities Exchange 1934 or extensions credit by a broker or dealer subject to regulation as a broker or dealer under the Securities Exchange 1934 (2) Exceptions The following provisions this part do not apply to securities credit: (i) Section 1002.5(b) concerning information about the sex an applicant; (ii) Section 1002.5(c) concerning information about a spouse or former spouse; (iii) Section 1002.5(d)(1) concerning information about marital status; (Z) prohibited basis means race color religion national origin sex marital status or age (provided that the applicant has the capacity to enter into a binding contr); the f that all or part the applicant's income derives from any public assistance program; or the f that the applicant has in good faith exercised any right under the Consumer Credit Protection or any state law upon which an exemption has been granted by the Bureau (aa) State means any state the District Columbia the Commonwealth Puerto Rico or any territory or possession the United States [Codified to 12 C.F.R § 1002.2] § 1002.3 Limited exceptions for certain classes transions (2) unsecured credit If an applicant requests unsecured credit and relies in part upon property that the applicant owns jointly with another person to satisfy the creditor's standards creditworthiness the creditor may require the signature the other person only on the instrument(s) necessary or reasonably believed by the creditor to be necessary under the law the state in which the property is located to enable the creditor to reach the property being relied upon in the event the death or default the applicant (A) administrative enforcement (1) As set forth more fully in section 704 the administrative enforcement the and this part regarding certain creditors is assigned to the Comptroller the Currency Board Governors the Federal Reserve System Board Directors the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation National Credit Union Administration Surface Transportation Board Civil Aeronautics Board Secretary Agriculture Farm Credit Administration Securities and Exchange Commission Small Business Administration Secretary Transportation and Bureau Consumer Financial Protection (2) Except to the extent that administrative enforcement is specifically assigned to some government agency other than the Bureau and subject to subtitle B the Consumer Financial Protection 2010 the Federal Trade Commission is authorized to enforce the requirements imposed under the and. In the EU the last country to allow divorce was Malta in 2011 Around the world the only countries to forbid divorce are Philippines and Vatican City, although in price in many countries which use a fault-based divorce system obtaining a divorce is very difficult The ability to divorce in law and price has been and continues to be a controversial issue in many countries and public discourse involves different ideologies such as feminism social conservatism religious interpretations. (B) preempted provisions state law (1) A state law is deemed to be inconsistent with the requirements the and this part and less protective an applicant within the meaning section 705(f) the to the extent that the law: (i) Requires or permits a price or prohibited by the or this part; (ii) Prohibits the individual extension consumer credit to both parties to a if each spouse individually and voluntarily applies for such credit; (iii) Prohibits inquiries or collection data required to comply with the or this part; (iv) Prohibits asking about or considering age in an empirically derived demonstrably and statistically sound credit scoring system to determine a pertinent element creditworthiness or to favor an elderly applicant; or The health-protective effect is stronger for men than women. Marital status—the simple f being married—confers more health benefits to men. (2) required collection information Notwithstanding paragraphs (b) through (d) this section a creditor shall request information for monitoring purposes as required by § for credit secured by the applicant's dwelling In addition a creditor may obtain information required by a regulation order or agreement issued by or entered into with a court or an enforcement agency (including the Attorney General the United States or a similar state ficial) to monitor or enforce compliance with the this part or other Federal or state statutes or regulations (3) Special-purpose credit A creditor may obtain information that is otherwise restricted to determine eligibility for a special purpose credit program as provided in §§ 1002.8(b) (c) and (d) (K) credit card means any card plate coupon book or other single credit device that may be used from time to time to obtain money property or services on credit Early theories explaining the determinants postmarital residence connected it with the sexual division labor However to date cross-cultural tests this hypothesis using worldwide samples have failed to find any significant relationship between these two variables However Korotayev's tests show that the female contribution to subsistence does correlate significantly with matrilocal residence in general However this correlation is masked by a general polygyny for. [Codified to 12 C.F.R § 1002.1] § 1002.2 s For the purposes this regulation unless the context indicates otherwise the following s apply (a) Account means an extension credit When employed in relation to an account the word use refers only to -end credit (b) means the Equal Credit Opportunity (Title VII the Consumer Credit Protection ) (c) Adverse ion (1) The term means: (i) A refusal to grant credit in substantially the amount or on substantially the terms requested in an application unless the creditor makes a counterfer (to grant credit in a different amount or on other terms) and the applicant uses or expressly accepts the credit fered; (2) a creditor may use an empirically derived demonstrably and statistically sound credit scoring system obtained from another person or may obtain credit experience from which to develop such a system Any such system must satisfy the criteria set forth in paragraph (p)(1)(i) through (iv) this section; if the creditor is unable during the development process to validate the system based on its own credit experience in accordance with paragraph (p)(1) this section the system must be validated when sufficient credit experience becomes available A system that fails this validity test is no longer an empirically derived demonstrably and statistically sound credit scoring system for that creditor (5) special rule for certain business credit applications With regard to a business that had gross revenues in excess $1 million in its preceding fiscal year or an extension trade credit credit incident to a foring agreement or other similar types business credit the creditor shall retain records for at least 60 days after notifying the applicant the ion taken If within that time period the applicant requests in writing the reasons for adverse ion or that records be retained the creditor shall retain records for 12 months Fox argues that "the major difference between polygyny and monogamy could be stated thus: while plural mating occurs in both systems under polygyny several unions may be recognized as being legal s while under monogamy only one the unions is so recognized ten however it is difficult to draw a hard and fast line between. (I) any application that it receives any information required to be obtained concerning chareristics the applicant to monitor compliance with the and this part or other similar law and any other written or recorded information used in evaluating the application and not returned to the applicant at the applicant's request; (ii) A copy the following documents if furnished to the applicant in written form (or if furnished orally any notation or memorandum made by the creditor): (A) The notification ion taken; and (B) The statement specific reasons for adverse ion; and (iii) Any written statement submitted by the applicant alleging a violation the or. (P) empirically derived and other credit scoring systems (1) A credit scoring system is a system that evaluates an applicant's creditworthiness mechanically based on key attributes the applicant and aspects the transion and that determines alone or in conjunction with an evaluation additional information about the applicant whether an applicant is deemed creditworthy To qualify as an empirically derived demonstrably and statistically sound credit scoring system the system must be: (i) Based on data that are derived from an empirical comparison sample groups or the population creditworthy and non-creditworthy applicants who applied for credit within a reasonable preceding period time; The 1975 European Convention on the Legal Status Children Born out Wedlock protects the rights children born to unmarried parents. The convention states among others that: "The father and mother a child born out wedlock shall have the same obligation to maintain the child as if it were born in wedlock" and that "A child born out wedlock shall have the same right succession in the estate its father and its mother and a member its father's or mother's family as if it had been born in wedlock."
While in most Western countries legal inequalities between children born inside and outside have largely been abolished this is not the case in some parts. Throughout history and still today in many countries laws have provided for extenuating circumstances partial or complete defenses for men who killed their wives due to adultery with such s ten being seen as crimes passion and being covered by legal defenses such as provocation or defense family honor. (Ii) a termination an account or an unfavorable change in the terms an account that does not affect all or substantially all a class the creditor's accounts; or (iii) A refusal to increase the amount credit available to an applicant who has made an application for an increase (2) The term does not include: (i) A change in the terms an account expressly agreed to by an applicant; (ii) Any ion or forbearance relating to an account taken in connection with inivity default or delinquency as to that account; The secure Internet channel for FDIC-insured institutions to conduct business and exchange information with. An issue that is a serious concern regarding and which has been the object international scrutiny is that sexual violence within Throughout much the history in most cultures sex in was considered a 'right' that could be taken by force (ten by a man from a woman) if 'denied' As the concept human rights started to develop in the 20th century and with the arrival second-wave feminism such views have become less widely held. (B) obtaining information Questions regarding ethnicity race sex marital status and age may be listed at the creditor's option on the application form or on a separate form that refers to the application The applicant(s) shall be asked but not required to supply the requested information If the applicant(s) chooses not to provide the information or any part it that f shall be noted on the form The creditor shall then also note on the form to the extent possible the ethnicity race and sex the applicant(s) on the basis visual observation or surname Zeitzen also notes that Western perceptions African society and patterns are biased by "contradictory concerns nostalgia for traditional African culture versus critique polygamy as oppressive to women or detrimental to development." Polygamy has been condemned as being a form human rights abuse with concerns arising over domestic abuse forced and neglect The vast majority the world's countries including virtually all the world's developed nations do not permit polygamy There have been calls for the abolition polygamy in developing countries. (I) ethnicity using the categories Hispanic or Latino and not Hispanic or Latino; and race using the categories American Indian or Alaska Native Asian Black or African American Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander and White; (ii) Sex; (iii) Marital status using the categories married unmarried and separated; and (iv) Age (2) Dwelling means a residential structure that contains one to four units whether or not that structure is attached to real property The term includes but is not limited to an individual condominium or cooperative unit and a mobile or other manufured home (C) special rule concerning requests and use information If participants in a special purpose credit program described in paragraph (a) this section are required to possess one or more common chareristics (for example race national origin or sex) and if the program otherwise satisfies the requirements paragraph (a) this section a creditor may request and consider information regarding the common chareristic(s) in determining the applicant's eligibility for the program The mythological origin Chinese heterosexual is a story about Nüwa and Fu Xi who invented proper procedures after becoming married In ancient Chinese society people the same surname are supposed to consult with their family trees prior to to reduce the potential risk unintentional incest Marrying one's maternal relatives was generally not thought as incest Families sometimes intermarried from one generation to another Over time Chinese people became more geographically mobile Individuals remained members their biological families When a couple died the husband and the wife were buried separately in the respective clan's graveyard In a maternal a male would become a son-in-law who lived in the wife's home. (4) on referral or whenever the Attorney General has reason to believe that one or more creditors have engaged in a pattern or price in violation the or this part the Attorney General may bring a civil ion for such relief as may be appropriate including ual and punitive damages and injunctive relief (5) If the Comptroller the Currency the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation the Board Governors the Federal Reserve System or the National Credit Union Administration has reason to believe (as a result a consumer complaint a consumer compliance examination or some other basis) that a violation the or this part has occurred which is also a violation the Fair and the matter is not referred to the Attorney General the agency shall: (i) Notify the Secretary and Urban Development; and (6) rights additional parties A creditor shall not impose requirements upon an additional party that the creditor is prohibited from imposing upon an applicant under this section (e) Insurance A creditor shall not refuse to extend credit and shall not terminate an account because credit life health accident disability or other credit-related insurance is not available on the basis the applicant's age [Codified to 12 C.F.R § 1002.7] § 1002.8 Special purpose credit programs (a) Standards for programs Subject to the provisions paragraph (b) this section the and this part permit a creditor to extend special purpose credit to applicants who meet eligibility requirements under the following types credit programs: An absolute submission a wife to her husband is accepted as natural in many parts the world for instance surveys by UNICEF have shown that the percentage women aged 15–49 who think that a husband is justified in hitting or beating his wife under certain circumstances is as high as 90% in Afghanistan and Jordan 87% in Mali 86% in Guinea and Timor-Leste 81% in Laos 80% in Central African Republic. Detailed results from Afghanistan show that 78.4% women agree with a beating if the wife "goes out without telling him [the husband]" and 76.2% agree "if she argues. [Table Contents] [Previous Page] [Next Page] [Search] Economic anthropologist Duran Bell has criticized the legitimacy-based on the basis that some societies do not require for legitimacy He argued that a legitimacy-based is circular in societies where illegitimacy has no other legal or social implications for a child other than the mother being unmarried. The steps that an unmarried father must take in order to obtain rights to his child vary by country In some countries (such as the UK – since 2003 in England and Wales 2006 in Scotland and 2002 in Northern Ireland) it is sufficient for the father to be listed on the birth certificate for him to have parental rights; in other countries such as Ireland simply being listed on the birth certificate does not fer any rights additional legal steps must be taken (if the mother agrees the parents can both sign a "statutory declaration" but if the mother does not agree the father has to apply. While child is observed for both boys and girls the overwhelming majority child spouses are girls. In many cases only one -partner is a child usually the female due to the importance placed upon female virginity. Causes child include poverty bride price dowry laws that allow child s religious and social pressures regional customs fear remaining unmarried and perceived inability women to work. The age was not absolute however as child s occurred throughout the Middle Ages and later with just some them including: The Bahá'í Faith encourages and views it as a mutually strengthening bond but it is not obligatory A Bahá'í requires the couple to choose each other and then obtain the consent all living parents. (M) credit transion means every aspect an applicant's dealings with a creditor regarding an application for credit or an existing extension credit (including but not limited to information requirements; investigation procedures; standards creditworthiness; terms credit; furnishing credit information; revocation alteration or termination credit; and collection procedures) (n) Discriminate against an applicant means to treat an applicant less favorably than other applicants (o) Elderly means age 62. (D) signature spouse or other person (1) Rule for qualified applicant Except as provided in this paragraph a creditor shall not require the signature an applicant's spouse or other person other than a joint applicant on any credit instrument if the applicant qualifies under the creditor's standards creditworthiness for the amount and terms the credit requested A creditor shall not deem the submission a joint financial statement or other evidence jointly held assets as an application for joint credit Like other close relationships exerts considerable influence on health. Married people experience lower morbidity and mortality across such diverse health threats as cancer heart attacks and surgery. Research on and health is part the broader study the benefits social relationships. A child is a where one or both spouses are under the age 18. It is related to child betrothal and teenage pregnancy. As part the Counter-Reformation in 1563 the Council Trent decreed that a Roman Catholic would be recognized only if the ceremony was ficiated by a priest with two witnesses The Council also authorized a Catechism issued in 1566 which defined as "The conjugal union man and woman contred between two qualified persons which obliges them to live together throughout life." (2) statement specific reasons The statement reasons for adverse ion required by paragraph (a)(2)(i) this section must be specific and indicate the principal reason(s) for the adverse ion Statements that the adverse ion was based on the creditor's internal standards or policies or that the applicant joint applicant or similar party failed to achieve a qualifying score on the creditor's credit scoring system are insufficient (c) Incomplete applications (1) Notice alternatives Within 30 days after receiving an application that is incomplete regarding matters that an applicant can complete the creditor shall notify the applicant either: (i) ion taken in accordance with paragraph (a) this section; or (ii) the incompleteness in accordance with paragraph (c)(2) this section Religions develop in specific geographic and social milieux. Unsurprisingly religious attitudes and prices relating to can vary The precepts mainstream religions include as a rule unequivocal prescriptions for establishing both rituals and rules conduct. Each religious authority has rules for the manner in which s are to be conducted by their ficials and members Where religious s are recognised by the state the ficiator must also conform with the law the jurisdiction. The inventory other assets for sale -- including fice furniture fixtures and equipment. (2) common chareristics A program described in paragraph (a)(2) or (a)(3) this section qualifies as a special purpose credit program only if it was established and is administered so as not to discriminate against an applicant on any prohibited basis; however all program participants may be required to share one or more common chareristics (for example race national origin or sex) so long as the program was not established and is not administered with the purpose evading the requirements the or. [Codified to 12 C.F.R § 1002.6] § 1002.7 Rules concerning extensions credit (a) Individual accounts A creditor shall not refuse to grant an individual account to a creditworthy applicant on the basis sex marital status or any other prohibited basis (b) Designation name A creditor shall not refuse to allow an applicant to or maintain an account in a birth-given first name and a surname that is the applicant's birth-given surname the spouse's surname or a combined surname (A) notification ion taken ECOA notice and statement specific reasons (1) When notification is required A creditor shall notify an applicant ion taken within: (i) 30 days after receiving a completed application concerning the creditor's approval counterfer to or adverse ion on the application; (ii) 30 days after taking adverse ion on an incomplete application unless notice is provided in accordance with paragraph (c) this section; (iii) 30 days after taking adverse ion on an existing account; or (iv) 90 days after notifying the applicant a counterfer if the applicant does not expressly accept or use the credit fered In various jurisdictions a civil may take place as part the religious ceremony although they are theoretically distinct Some jurisdictions allow civil s in circumstances which are notably not allowed by particular religions such as same-sex s or civil unions. The anthropological handbook Notes and Queries (1951) defined as "a union between a man and a woman such that children born to the woman are the recognized legitimate fspring both partners." In recognition a price by the Nuer people Sudan allowing women to as a husband in certain circumstances (the ghost ) Kathleen Gough suggested modifying this to "a woman and one or more other persons." (Iii) federal law prohibits the creditor from discriminating on the basis this information or on the basis an applicant's decision not to furnish the information; and (iv) If applicable certain information will be collected based on visual observation or surname if not provided by the applicant or other person (2) Sex An applicant may be requested to designate a title on an application form (such as Ms Miss Mr or Mrs.) if the form discloses that the designation a title is optional An application form shall otherwise use only terms that are neutral as to sex (c) Information about a spouse or former spouse (1) General rule Except as permitted in this paragraph a creditor may not request any information concerning the spouse or former spouse an applicant (2) disclosure For applications subject to paragraph (a)(1) this section a creditor shall mail or deliver to an applicant not later than the third business day after the creditor receives an application for credit that is to be secured by a first lien on a dwelling a notice in writing the applicant's right to receive a copy all written appraisals developed in connection with the application In the case an application for credit that is not to be secured by a first lien on a dwelling at the time application if the creditor later determines the credit will be secured by a first lien on a dwelling the creditor shall mail or deliver the same notice in writing not later than the third business day after the creditor determines that the loan is to be secured by a first lien on a dwelling Edmund Leach criticized Gough's for being too restrictive in terms recognized legitimate fspring and suggested that be viewed in terms the different types rights it serves to establish In 1955 article in Man Leach argued that no one applied to all cultures He fered a list ten rights associated with including sexual monopoly and rights with respect to children with specific rights differing across cultures Those rights according to Leach included: (1) any credit assistance program expressly authorized by Federal or state law for the benefit an economically disadvantaged class persons; (2) Any credit assistance program fered by a not-for-prit organization as defined under section 501(c) the Internal Revenue Code 1954 as amended for the benefit its members or for the benefit an economically disadvantaged class persons; or (3) Any special purpose credit program fered by a for-prit organization or in which such an organization participates to meet special social needs if: (i) The program is established and administered pursuant to a written plan that identifies the class persons that the program is designed to benefit and sets forth the procedures and standards for extending credit pursuant to the program; and (5) income A creditor shall not discount or exclude from consideration the income an applicant or the spouse an applicant because a prohibited basis or because the income is derived from part-time employment or is an annuity pension or other retirement benefit; a creditor may consider the amount and probable continuance any income in evaluating an applicant's creditworthiness When an applicant relies on alimony child support or separate maintenance payments in applying for credit the creditor shall consider such payments as income to the extent that they are likely to be consistently made (6) Credit history To the extent that a creditor considers credit history in evaluating the creditworthiness similarly qualified applicants for a similar type and amount credit in evaluating an applicant's creditworthiness a creditor shall consider: In England and Wales since 1837 civil s have been recognized as a legal alternative to church s under the 1836 In Germany civil s were recognized in 1875 This law permitted a declaration the before an ficial clerk the civil administration when both spouses affirm their will to marry to constitute a legally recognized valid and effective and allowed an optional private clerical ceremony. A statutory right two married partners to mutually consent to divorce was ened in western nations in the mid-20th century In the United States no-fault divorce was first ened in California in 1969 and the final state to legalize it was New York in 1989.
About 45% s in Britain and according to a 2009 study 46% s in the U.S. end in divorce. Conversely when progressive tax is levied on the individual with no consideration for the partnership dual-income couples fare much better than single-income couples with similar household incomes The effect can be increased when the welfare system treats the same income as a shared income thereby denying welfare access to the non-earning spouse Such systems apply in Australia and Canada for example. (C) incidental credit (1) Incidental credit refers to extensions consumer credit other than the types described in paragraphs (a) and (b) this section: (i) That are not made pursuant to the terms a credit card account; (ii) That are not subject to a finance charge (as defined in Regulation Z 12 CFR 1026.4); and (iii) That are not payable by agreement in more than four installments (2) Exceptions The following provisions this part do not apply to incidental credit: (i) Section 1002.5(b) concerning information about the sex an applicant but only to the extent necessary for medical records or similar purposes; (ii) Section 1002.5(c) concerning information about a spouse or former spouse; (iii) Section 1002.5(d)(1) concerning information about marital status; In most societies the death one the partners terminates the and in monogamous societies this allows the other partner to remarry though sometimes after a waiting or mourning period In some societies a can be annulled when an authority declares that a never happened Jurisdictions ten have provisions for void s or voidable s. (2) notice incompleteness If additional information is needed from an applicant the creditor shall send a written notice to the applicant specifying the information needed designating a reasonable period time for the applicant to provide the information and informing the applicant that failure to provide the information requested will result in no further consideration being given to the application The creditor shall have no further obligation under this section if the applicant fails to respond within the designated time period If the applicant supplies the requested information within the designated time period the creditor shall take ion on the application and notify the applicant in accordance with paragraph (a) this section (D) age refers only to the age natural persons and means the number fully elapsed years from the date an applicant's birth (e) Applicant means any person who requests or who has received an extension credit from a creditor and includes any person who is or may become contrually liable regarding an extension credit For purposes § 1002.7(d) the term includes guarantors sureties endorsers and similar parties (I) information about whether a creditor conducted a self-test the methodology used or the scope the self-test the time period covered by the self-test or the dates it was conducted; or (ii) Loan and application files or other business records related to credit transions and information derived from such files and records even if the information has been aggregated summarized or reorganized to facilitate analysis (c) Appropriate corrective ion (1) General requirement For the privilege in this section to apply appropriate corrective ion is required when the self-test shows that it is more likely than not that a violation occurred even though no violation has been formally adjudicated Serial monogamy creates a new kind relative the "ex-" The "ex-wife" for example remains an ive part her "ex-husband's" or "ex-wife's" life as they may be tied together by transfers resources (alimony child support) or shared child custody Bob Simpson notes that in the British case serial monogamy creates an "extended family" – a number households tied together in this way including mobile children (possible exes may include an ex-wife an ex-brother-in-law etc but not an "ex-child") These "unclear families" do not fit the mould the monogamous nuclear family As a series connected households they come to resemble the polygynous model separate households maintained by mothers with children tied by a male to whom they are married or divorced. (Iii) a creditor is not required to provide remedial relief to a particular applicant if the statute limitations applicable to the violation expired before the creditor obtained the results the self-test or the applicant is otherwise ineligible for such relief (4) No admission violation Taking corrective ion is not an admission that a violation occurred (d) Scope privilege (1) General rule The report or results a privileged self-test may not be obtained or used: (i) By a government agency in any examination or investigation relating to compliance with the or this part; or (ii) By a government agency or an applicant (including a prospective applicant who alleges a violation § 1002.4(b)) in any proceeding or civil ion in which a violation the or this part is alleged Governments that support monogamy may allow easy divorce In a number Western countries divorce rates approach 50% Those who remarry do so on average three times Divorce and re can thus result in "serial monogamy" i.e having multiple s but only one legal spouse at a time This can be interpreted as a form plural mating as are those societies dominated by female-headed families in the Caribbean Mauritius and Brazil where there is frequent rotation unmarried partners In all these account for 16 to 24% the "monogamous" category.
(Q) extend credit and extension credit mean the granting credit in any form (including but not limited to credit granted in addition to any existing credit or credit limit; credit granted pursuant to an -end credit plan; the refinancing or other renewal credit including the issuance a new credit card in place an expiring credit card or in substitution for an existing credit card; the consolidation two or more obligations; or the continuance existing credit without any special effort to collect at or after maturity) (r) Good faith means honesty in f in the conduct or transion (s) Inadvertent error means a mechanical electronic or clerical error that a creditor demonstrates was not intentional and occurred notwithstanding the maintenance procedures reasonably adapted to avoid such errors (3) other applications For 25 months (12 months for business credit except as provided in paragraph (b)(5) this section) after the date that a creditor receives an application for which the creditor is not required to comply with the notification requirements § 1002.9 the creditor shall retain all written or recorded information in its possession concerning the applicant including any notation. (Ii) the program is established and administered to extend credit to a class persons who under the organization's customary standards creditworthiness probably would not receive such credit or would receive it on less favorable terms than are ordinarily available to other applicants applying to the organization for a similar type and amount credit (b) Rules in other sections (1) General applicability All the provisions this part apply to each the special purpose credit programs described in paragraph (a) this section except as modified by this section (C) disclosure to applicant(s) The creditor shall inform the applicant(s) that the information regarding ethnicity race sex marital status and age is being requested by the Federal Government for the purpose monitoring compliance with Federal statutes that prohibit creditors from discriminating against applicants on those bases The creditor shall also inform the applicant(s) that if the applicant(s) chooses not to provide the information the creditor is required to note the ethnicity race and sex on the basis visual observation or surname (d) Substitute monitoring program A monitoring program required by an agency charged with administrative enforcement under section 704 the may be substituted for the requirements contained in paragraphs (a) (b) and (c) this section [Codified to 12 C.F.R ] South Africa under apartheid also banned interracial The Prohibition Mixed s 1949 prohibited between persons different races and the Immorality 1950 made sexual relations with a person a different race. Some people want to marry a person with higher or lower status than them Others want to marry people who have similar status In many societies women marry men who are higher social status. There are s where each party has sought a partner similar status There are other s in which the man is older than. (2) loss privilege The report or results a self-test are not privileged under paragraph (d)(1) this section if the creditor or a person with lawful access to the report or results: (i) Voluntarily discloses any part the report or results or any other information privileged under this section to an applicant or government agency or to the public; (ii) Discloses any part the report or results or any other information privileged under this section as a defense to charges that the creditor has violated the or regulation; or (iii) Fails or is unable to produce written or recorded information about the self-test that is required to be retained under § (b)(6) when the information is needed to determine whether the privilege applies This paragraph does not limit any other penalty or remedy that may be available for a violation § (C) ion concerning existing -end accounts (1) Limitations In the absence evidence the applicant's inability or unwillingness to repay a creditor shall not take any the following ions regarding an applicant who is contrually liable on an existing -end account on the basis the applicant's reaching a certain age or retiring or on the basis a change in the applicant's name or marital status: (i) Require a reapplication except as provided in paragraph (c)(2) this section; (ii) Change the terms the account; or (iii) Terminate the account (V) prohibits inquiries necessary to establish or administer a special purpose credit program as defined by § 1002.8 (2) A creditor state or other interested party may request that the Bureau determine whether a state law is inconsistent with the requirements the and this part (c) Laws on finance charges loan ceilings If married applicants voluntarily apply for and obtain individual accounts with the same creditor the accounts shall not be aggregated or otherwise combined for purposes determining permissible finance charges or loan ceilings under any Federal or state law Permissible loan ceiling laws shall be construed to permit each spouse to become individually liable up to the amount the loan ceilings less the amount for which the applicant is jointly liable [Codified to 12 C.F.R § 1002.3] § 1002.4 General rules (a) Discrimination A creditor shall not discriminate against an applicant on a prohibited basis regarding any aspect a credit transion (b) Discouragement A creditor shall not make any oral or written statement in advertising or otherwise to applicants or prospective applicants that would discourage on a prohibited basis a reasonable person from making or pursuing an application (c) Written applications A creditor shall take written applications for the dwelling-related types credit covered by § (a) Historically and still in many countries children born outside suffered severe social stigma and discrimination In England and Wales such children were known as bastards and whoresons There are significant differences between world regions in regard to the social and legal position non-marital births ranging from being fully accepted and uncontroversial to being severely stigmatized and discriminated. (A) authority and scope This part known as Regulation B is issued by the Bureau Consumer Financial Protection (Bureau) pursuant to Title VII (Equal Credit Opportunity ) the Consumer Credit Protection as amended (15 U.S.C 1601 et seq.) Except as otherwise provided herein this part applies to all persons who are creditors as defined in § 1002.2(l) other than a person excluded from coverage this part by section 1029 the Consumer Financial Protection 2010 Title X the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Public Law 111--203 124 Stat 1376 Information collection requirements contained in this part have been approved by the fice Management and Budget under the provisions 44 U.S.C 3501 et seq and have been assigned. To prohibit incest and eugenic reasons laws have set restrictions for relatives to marry Direct blood relatives are usually prohibited to marry while for branch line relatives laws. According to some estimates there wasn't even 1% divorce among Hindu arranged s.
Main article: Buddhist view The Buddhist view considers a secular affair and thus not a sacrament Buddhists are expected to follow the civil laws regarding laid out by their respective governments Gautama Buddha being a kshatriya was required by Shakyan tradition to pass a series tests to prove himself as a warrior before he was allowed. (E) withdrawal approved application When an applicant submits an application and the parties contemplate that the applicant will inquire about its status if the creditor approves the application and the applicant has not inquired within 30 days after applying the creditor may treat the application as withdrawn and need not comply with paragraph (a)(1) this section (f) Multiple applicants When an application involves more than one applicant notification need only be given to one them but must be given to the primary applicant where one is readily apparent Although a society may be classified as polygynous not all s in it necessarily are; monogamous s may in f predominate It is to this flexibility that Anthropologist Robin Fox attributes its success as a social support system: "This has ten meant – given the imbalance in the sex ratios the higher male infant mortality the shorter life span males the loss males in wartime etc – that ten women were left without financial support from husbands To correct this condition females had to be killed at birth remain single become prostitutes or be siphoned f into celibate religious orders Polygynous systems have the advantage that they can promise as did the Mormons a home and family for. Is an institution that is historically filled with restrictions From age to race to social status to consanguinity to gender restrictions are placed on by society for reasons benefiting the children passing on healthy genes maintaining cultural values or because prejudice and fear Almost all cultures that recognize also recognize adultery as a violation. (Iv) in any system evaluating creditworthiness a creditor may consider the age an elderly applicant when such age is used to favor the elderly applicant in extending credit (3) Childbearing childrearing In evaluating creditworthiness a creditor shall not make assumptions or use aggregate statistics relating to the likelihood that any category persons will bear or rear children or will for that reason receive diminished or interrupted income in the future (4) Telephone listing A creditor shall not take into account whether there is a telephone listing in the name an applicant for consumer credit but may take into account whether there is a telephone in the applicant's residence Some countries such as Australia permit s to be held in private and at any location; others including England and Wales require that the civil ceremony be conducted in a place to the public and specially sanctioned by law for the purpose In England the place formerly had to be a church or register fice but this was extended to any public venue with the necessary licence An exception can be made in the case by special emergency license (UK: licence) which is normally granted only when one the parties is terminally ill Rules about where and when persons can marry vary from place to place Some regulations require one the parties to reside within the jurisdiction the register fice (formerly parish). In The History Human (1922) Edvard Westermarck defined as "a more or less durable connection between male and female lasting beyond the mere propagation till after the birth the fspring." In The Future in Western Civilization (1936) he rejected his earlier instead provisionally defining as "a relation one or more men to one or more women that is recognized by custom. (6) self-Tests For 25 months after a self-test (as defined in § ) has been completed the creditor shall retain all written or recorded information about the self-test A creditor shall retain information beyond 25 months if it has ual notice that it is under investigation or is subject to an enforcement proceeding for an alleged violation or if it has been served with notice a civil ion In such cases the creditor shall retain the information until final disposition the matter unless an earlier time is allowed by the appropriate agency or court order (7) Prescreened solicitations For 25 months after the date on which an fer credit is made to potential customers (12 months for business credit except as provided in paragraph (b)(5) this section) the creditor shall retain in original form or a copy there: (i) The text any prescreened solicitation; (Ii) inform the applicant that the Secretary and Urban Development has been notified and that remedies may be available under the Fair (c) Failure compliance A creditor's failure to comply with §§ 1002.6(b)(6) 1002.9 or is not a violation if it results from an inadvertent error On discovering an error under §§ 1002.9 and the creditor shall correct it as soon as possible If a creditor inadvertently obtains the monitoring information regarding the ethnicity race and sex the applicant in a dwelling-related transion not covered by § the creditor may retain information and on the application without violating the regulation [Codified to 12 C.F.R ] (1) any new account to reflect the participation both spouses if the applicant's spouse is permitted to use or is contrually liable on the account (other than as a guarantor surety endorser or similar party); and (2) Any existing account to reflect such participation within 90 days after receiving a written request to do so from one the spouses (b) Routine reports to consumer reporting agency If a creditor furnishes credit information to a consumer reporting agency concerning an account designated to reflect the participation both spouses the creditor shall furnish the information in a manner that will enable the agency to provide access to the information in the name each spouse Religious groups have differing views on the legitimacy polygyny It is allowed in Islam and Confucianism Judaism and Christianity have mentioned prices involving polygyny in the past however outright religious acceptance such prices was not addressed until its rejection in later passages They do explicitly prohibit polygyny today. (I) the credit history when available accounts designated as accounts that the applicant and the applicant's spouse are permitted to use or for which both are contrually liable; (ii) On the applicant's request any information the applicant may present that tends to indicate the credit history being considered by the creditor does not accurately reflect the applicant's creditworthiness; and (iii) On the applicant's request the credit history when available any account reported in the name the applicant's spouse or former spouse that the applicant can demonstrate accurately reflects the applicant's creditworthiness (7) Immigration status A creditor may consider the applicant's immigration status or status as a permanent resident the United States and any additional information that may be necessary to ascertain the creditor's rights and remedies regarding repayment (Iv) section 1002.7(b) relating to designation name to the extent necessary to comply with rules regarding an account in which a broker or dealer has an interest or rules regarding the aggregation accounts spouses to determine controlling interests beneficial interests beneficial ownership or purchase limitations and restrictions; (v) Section 1002.7(c) relating to ion concerning -end accounts to the extent the ion taken is on the basis a change name or marital status; (vi) Section 1002.7(d) relating to the signature a spouse or other person; (vii) Section relating to furnishing credit information; and (viii) Section (b) relating to record retention A dowry is "a process whereby parental property is distributed to a daughter at her (i.e inter vivos) rather than at the holder's death (mortis causa)… A dowry establishes some variety conjugal fund the nature which may vary widely This fund ensures her support (or endowment) in widowhood and eventually goes to provide for her sons and daughters." The financial aspects vary between cultures and have changed over time In some cultures dowries and bridewealth continue to be required today In both cases the financial arrangements are usually made between the groom (or his family) and the bride's family; with the bride ten not being involved in the negotiations and ten not having a choice in whether to participate in the In Early modern Britain the social status the couple was supposed to be equal After the all the property (called "fortune") and expected inheritances the wife belonged to the husband. Anthropologist Jack Goody's comparative study around the world utilizing the Ethnographic Atlas found a strong correlation between intensive plough agriculture dowry and monogamy This pattern was found in a broad swath Eurasian societies from Japan to Ireland The majority Sub-Saharan African societies that price extensive hoe agriculture in contrast show a correlation between "bride price" and polygamy. A further study drawing on the Ethnographic Atlas showed a statistical correlation between increasing size the society the belief in "high gods" to support human morality and monogamy. (2) disclosures in electronic form The disclosures required by this part that are required to be given in writing may be provided to the applicant in electronic form subject to compliance with the consumer consent and other applicable provisions the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce (E-Sign ) (15 U.S.C 7001 et seq.) Where the disclosures under §§ 1002.5(b)(1) 1002.5(b)(2) 1002.5(d)(1) 1002.5(d)(2) and (a)(2) accompany an application accessed by the applicant in electronic form these disclosures may be provided to the applicant in electronic form on or with the application form without regard to the consumer consent or other provisions the E-Sign (e) Foreign-language disclosures Disclosures may be made in languages other than English provided they are available in English upon request For a Muslim wedding to take place the bridegroom and the guardian the bride (wali) must both agree on the Should the guardian disagree on the it may not legally take place If the wali the girl her father or paternal grandfather he has the right to force her into even against her proclaimed will if it is her first A guardian who is allowed to force the bride into is called wali mujbir. As noted above several kinds same-sex non-sexual s exist in some lineage-based societies This section relates to same-sex sexual unions Some cultures include third gender (two-spirit or transgender) individuals such as the berdache the Zuni in New Mexico We'wha one the most revered Zuni elders (an Ihamana spiritual leader) served as an emissary the Zuni to Washington where he met President Grover Cleveland We'wha had a husband who was generally recognized. (D) form disclosures (1) General rule A creditor that provides in writing any disclosures or information required by this part must provide the disclosures in a clear and conspicuous manner and except for the disclosures required by §§ 1002.5 and in a form the applicant may retain § Rules on providing appraisals and other valuations (2) existing accounts For 25 months (12 months for business credit except as provided in paragraph (b)(5) this section) after the date that a creditor notifies an applicant adverse ion regarding an existing account the creditor shall retain as to that account in original form or a copy there: (i) Any written or recorded information concerning the adverse ion; and (ii) Any written statement submitted by the applicant alleging a violation the or. (B) penalties and liabilities (1) Sections 702(g) and 706(a) and (b) the provide that any creditor that fails to comply with a requirement imposed by the or this part is subject to civil liability for ual and punitive damages in individual or class ions Pursuant to sections 702(g) and 704(b) (c) and (d) the violations the or this part also constitute violations other Federal laws Liability for punitive damages can apply only to nongovernmental entities and is limited to $10,000 in individual ions and the lesser $500,000 or 1 percent the creditor's net worth in class ions Section 706(c) provides for equitable and declaratory relief and section 706(d) authorizes the awarding costs and reasonable attorney's fees to an aggrieved applicant in a successful ion Laws banning "race-mixing" were enforced in certain North American jurisdictions from 1691 until 1967 in Nazi Germany (The Nuremberg Laws) from 1935 until 1945 and in South Africa during most part the Apartheid era (1949–1985) All these laws primarily banned between persons different racially or ethnically defined groups which was termed "amalgamation" or "miscegenation" in the U.S The laws in Nazi Germany and many the U.S states as well as South Africa also banned sexual relations between such individuals. In other cultures with less strict rules governing the groups from which a partner can be chosen the selection a partner may involve either the couple going through a selection process courtship or the may be arranged by the couple's parents or an outside party a matchmaker. (Ii) developed for the purpose evaluating the creditworthiness applicants with respect to the legitimate business interests the creditor utilizing the system (including but not limited to minimizing bad debt losses and operating expenses in accordance with the creditor's business judgment); (iii) Developed and validated using accepted statistical principles and methodology; and (iv) Periodically revalidated by the use appropriate statistical principles and methodology and adjusted as necessary to maintain predictive ability (D) special rule in the case financial need If financial need is one the criteria under a special purpose credit program described in paragraph (a) this section the creditor may request and consider in determining an applicant's eligibility for the program information regarding the applicant's marital status; alimony child support and separate maintenance income; and the spouse's financial resources In addition a creditor may obtain the signature an applicant's spouse or other person on an application or credit instrument relating to a special purpose credit program if the signature is required by Federal or state law [Codified to 12 C.F.R § 1002.8] § 1002.9 Notifications (2) requiring reapplication A creditor may require a reapplication for an -end account on the basis a change in the marital status an applicant who is contrually liable if the credit granted was based in whole or in part on income the applicant's spouse and if information available to the creditor indicates that the applicant's income may not support the amount credit currently available As part the Protestant Reformation the role recording s and setting the rules for passed to the state reflecting Martin Luther's view that was a "worldly thing". By the 17th century many the Protestant European countries had a state involvement in In England under the Anglican Church by consent and cohabitation was valid until the passage Lord Hardwicke's in 1753 This instituted certain requirements for including the performance a religious ceremony observed by witnesses. In some legal systems the partners in a are "jointly liable" for the debts the This has a basis in a traditional legal notion called the "Doctrine Necessities" whereby in a heterosexual a husband was responsible to provide necessary things for his wife Where this is the case one partner may be sued to collect a debt for which they did not expressly contr Critics this price note that debt collection agencies can abuse this by claiming an unreasonably wide range debts to be expenses the The cost defense and the burden pro is then placed on the non-contring party to prove that the expense is not a debt the family The respective maintenance obligations both during and eventually after a are regulated in most jurisdictions; alimony is one such method. Laws refer to the legal requirements which determine the validity a which vary considerably between countries Rights and obligations
See also: Matrimonial regime and Rights and responsibilities s in the United States
A bestows rights and obligations on the married parties and sometimes on relatives as well being the sole mechanism for the creation affinal ties (in-laws) These may include depending on jurisdiction: Polygyny is widely priced in mostly Muslim and African countries. In the Middle Eastern region Israel Turkey and Tunisia are notable exceptions.
In most other jurisdictions polygamy is illegal For example In the United States polygamy is illegal in all 50 states. In 12th-century Europe women took the surname their husbands and starting in the second half the 16th century parental consent along with the church's consent was required for  During the first half the 20th century unmarried women in some Western countries were coerced by authorities to give their children up for adoption This was especially the case in Australia through the forced adoptions in Australia with most these adoptions taking place between the 1950s and the 1970s In 2013 Julia Gillard then Prime Minister Australia fered a national apology to those affected by the forced adoptions. People have proposed arguments against for reasons that include political philosophical and religious criticisms; concerns about the divorce rate; individual liberty and gender equality; questioning the necessity having a personal relationship sanctioned by government or religious authorities; or the promotion celibacy for religious or philosophical reasons. (Ii) the list criteria the creditor used to select potential recipients the solicitation; and (iii) Any correspondence related to complaints (formal or informal) about the solicitation [Codified to 12 C.F.R ] § Information for monitoring purposes (a) Information to be requested (1) A creditor that receives an application for credit primarily for the purchase or refinancing a dwelling occupied or to be occupied by the applicant as a principal residence where the extension credit will be secured by the dwelling shall request as part the application the following information regarding the applicant(s): Among ancient Germanic tribes the bride and groom were roughly the same age and generally older than their Roman counterparts at least according to Tacitus: The youths partake late the pleasures love and hence pass the age puberty unexhausted: nor are the virgins hurried into ; the same maturity the same full growth is required: the sexes unite equally matched and robust; and the children inherit the vigor their parents. (3) oral request for information At its option a creditor may inform the applicant orally the need for additional information If the application remains incomplete the creditor shall send a notice in accordance with paragraph (c)(1) this section (d) Oral notifications by small-volume creditors In the case a creditor that did not receive more than 150 applications during the preceding calendar year the requirements this section (including statements specific reasons) are satisfied by oral notifications (2) disclosure about income from alimony child support or separate maintenance A creditor shall not inquire whether income stated in an application is derived from alimony child support or separate maintenance payments unless the creditor discloses to the applicant that such income need not be revealed if the applicant does not want the creditor to consider it in determining the applicant's creditworthiness (3) Childbearing childrearing A creditor shall not inquire about birth control prices intentions concerning the bearing or rearing children or capability to bear children A creditor may inquire about the number and ages an applicant's dependents or about dependent-related financial obligations or expenditures provided such information is requested without regard to sex marital status or any other prohibited basis In some societies ranging from Central Asia to the Caucasus to Africa the custom bride kidnapping still exists in which a woman is captured by a man and his friends Sometimes this covers an elopement but sometimes it depends on sexual violence In previous times raptio was a larger-scale version this with groups women captured by groups men sometimes in war; the most famous example is The Rape the Sabine Women which provided the first citizens Rome with. Some married couples choose not to have children Others are unable to have children because infertility or other fors preventing conception or the bearing children In some cultures imposes an obligation on women to bear children In northern Ghana for example payment bridewealth signifies a woman's requirement to bear children and women using birth control face substantial threats physical abuse and reprisals. (D) other limitations on information requests (1) Marital status If an applicant applies for individual unsecured credit a creditor shall not inquire about the applicant's marital status unless the applicant resides in a community property state or is relying on property located in such a state as a basis for repayment the credit requested If an application is for other than individual unsecured credit a creditor may inquire about the applicant's marital status but shall use only the terms married unmarried and separated A creditor may explain that the category unmarried includes single divorced and widowed persons Religion has commonly weighed in on the matter which relatives if any are allowed to marry Relations may be by consanguinity or affinity meaning by blood or by On the cousins Catholic policy has evolved from initial acceptance through a long period general prohibition to the contemporary requirement for a dispensation. Islam has always allowed it while Hindu texts vary widely. Since a wife was regarded as property her husband was originally free to divorce her for any reason at any time. Divorcing a woman against her will was also banned by Gershom ben Judah A divorced couple were permitted to get back together unless the wife had married someone else after her divorce.[Deut 24:2–4] Since the 16th century five competing models have shaped Protestant and legal tradition: (2) from consumer reporting agencies an applicant or others without the specific request the creditor; or (3) As required to monitor compliance with the and this part or other Federal or state statutes or regulations (b) Preservation records (1) Applications For 25 months (12 months for business credit except as provided in paragraph (b)(5) this section) after the date that a creditor notifies an applicant ion taken on an application or incompleteness the creditor shall retain in original form or a. (3) if an agency responsible for administrative enforcement is unable to obtain compliance with the or this part it may refer the matter to the Attorney General the United States If the Bureau the Comptroller the Currency the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation the Board Governors the Federal Reserve System or the National Credit Union Administration has reason to believe that one or more creditors have engaged in a pattern or price discouraging or denying applications in violation the or this part the agency shall refer the matter to the Attorney General If the agency has reason to believe that one or more creditors violated section 701(a) the the agency may refer a matter to the Attorney General Monogamy is a form in which an individual has only one spouse during their lifetime or at any one time (serial monogamy). In the countries which do not permit polygamy a person who marries in one those countries a person while still being lawfully married to another commits the crime bigamy In all cases the second is considered legally null and void Besides the second and subsequent s being void the bigamist is also liable to other penalties which also vary between jurisdictions. Insar as regular s following prescriptive rules occur lineages are linked together in fixed relationships; these ties between lineages may form political alliances in kinship dominated societies. French structural anthropologist Claude Lévi-Strauss developed alliance theory to account for the "elementary" kinship structures created by the limited number prescriptive rules possible. (I) with regard to a business that had gross revenues $1 million or less in its preceding fiscal year (other than an extension trade credit credit incident to a foring agreement or other similar types business credit) a creditor shall comply with paragraphs (a)(1) and (2) this section except that: (A) The statement the ion taken may be given orally or in writing when adverse ion is taken; (B) Disclosure an applicant's right to a statement reasons may be given at the time application instead when adverse ion is taken provided the disclosure contains the information required by paragraph (a)(2)(ii) this section and the ECOA notice specified in paragraph (b)(1) this section; Other partners are more or less imposed on an individual For example widow inheritance provides a widow with another man from her late husband's brothers In rural areas India child is priced with parents ten arranging the wedding sometimes even before the child is born. This price was made illegal under the Child Restraint 1929. Authority: 12 U.S.C 5512 5581; 15 U.S.C 1691b SOURCE: The provisions this part 1002 appear at 76 FR 79445 effective Decem unless otherwise noted § 1002.1 Authority scope and purpose Child s can also occur in the context bride kidnapping.
In the year 1552 CE John Somerford and Jane Somerford Brereton were both married at the ages 3 and 2 respectively Twelve years later in 1564 John filed for divorce. (4) secured credit If an applicant requests secured credit a creditor may require the signature the applicant's spouse or other person on any instrument necessary or reasonably believed by the creditor to be necessary under applicable state law to make the property being fered as security available to satisfy the debt in the event default for example an instrument to create a valid lien pass clear title waive inchoate rights or assign earnings (5) Additional parties If under a creditor's standards creditworthiness the personal liability an additional party is necessary to support the credit requested a creditor may request a cosigner guarantor endorser or similar party The applicant's spouse may serve as an additional party but the creditor shall not require that the spouse be the additional party (G) business credit refers to extensions credit primarily for business or commercial (including agricultural) purposes but excluding extensions credit the types described in §§ 1002.3(a)-(d) (h) Consumer credit means credit extended to a natural person primarily for personal family or household purposes (i) Contrually liable means expressly obligated to repay all debts arising on an account by reason an agreement to that effect (j) Credit means the right granted by a creditor to an applicant to defer payment a debt incur debt and defer its payment or purchase property or services and defer payment therefor Since the late twentieth century major social changes in Western countries have led to changes in the demographics with the age first increasing fewer people marrying and more couples choosing to cohabit rather than marry For example the number s in Europe decreased by 30% from. The Roman Catholic tradition the 12th and 13th centuries defined as a sacrament ordained by God, signifying the mystical Christ to his Church. The matrimonial covenant by which a man and a woman establish between themselves a partnership the whole life is by its nature ordered toward the good the spouses and the procreation and education fspring; this covenant between baptized persons has been raised by Christ the Lord to the dignity a sacrament. S are classified according to the number legal spouses an individual has The suffix "-gamy" refers specifically to the number spouses as in bi-gamy (two spouses generally illegal in most nations) and poly-gamy (more than one spouse). In a small number jurisdictions relationships may be created by the operation the law alone. Unlike the typical ceremonial with legal contr wedding ceremony and other details a common-law may be called " by habit and repute (cohabitation)." A de fo common-law without a license or ceremony is legally binding in some jurisdictions but has no legal consequence in others. (2) content notification when adverse ion is taken A notification given to an applicant when adverse ion is taken shall be in writing and shall contain a statement the ion taken; the name and address the creditor; a statement the provisions section 701(a) the ; the name and address the Federal agency that administers compliance with respect to the creditor; and either: (i) A statement specific reasons for the ion taken; or (L) creditor means a person who in the ordinary course business regularly participates in a credit decision including setting the terms the credit The term creditor includes a creditor's assignee transferee or subrogee who so participates For purposes §§ 1002.4(a) and (b) the term creditor also includes a person who in the ordinary course business regularly refers applicants or prospective applicants to creditors or selects or fers to select creditors to whom requests for credit may be made A person is not a creditor regarding any violation the or this part committed by another creditor unless the person knew or had reasonable notice the policy or price that constituted the violation before becoming involved in the credit transion The term does not include a person whose only participation in a credit transion involves honoring a credit card (A) general rule concerning use information Except as otherwise provided in the and this part a creditor may consider any information obtained so long as the information is not used to discriminate against an applicant on a prohibited basis The legislative history the indicates that the Congress intended an "effects test" concept as outlined in the employment field by the Supreme Court in the cases Griggs v Duke Power Co 401 U.S 424 (1971) and Albemarle Paper Co v Moody 422 U.S 405 (1975) to be applicable to a creditor's determination creditworthiness (b) Specific rules concerning use information (1) Except as provided in the and this part a creditor shall not take a prohibited basis into account in any system evaluating the creditworthiness applicants (2) as provided in section 706(f) the a civil ion under the or this part may be brought in the appropriate United States district court without regard to the amount in controversy or in any other court competent jurisdiction within five years after the date the occurrence the violation or within one year after the commencement an administrative enforcement proceeding or a civil ion brought by the Attorney General the United States within five years after the alleged violation (A) public utilities credit (1) Public utilities credit refers to extensions credit that involve public utility services provided through pipe wire or other connected facilities or radio or similar transmission (including extensions such facilities) if the charges for service delayed payment and any discount for prompt payment are filed with or regulated by a government unit (2) Exceptions The following provisions this part do not apply to public utilities credit: (i) Section 1002.5(d)(1) concerning information about marital status; and (ii) Section (b) relating to record retention (F) application means an oral or written request for an extension credit that is made in accordance with procedures used by a creditor for the type credit requested The term application does not include the use an account or line credit to obtain an amount credit that is within a previously established credit limit A completed application means an application in connection with which a creditor has received all the information that the creditor regularly obtains and considers in evaluating applications for the amount and type credit requested (including but not limited to credit reports any additional information requested from the applicant and any approvals or reports by governmental agencies or other persons that are necessary to guarantee insure or provide security for the credit or collateral) The creditor shall exercise reasonable diligence in obtaining such information There has been a trend toward the neolocal residence in western societies. The Christian Church performed s in the narthex the church prior to the 16th century when the emphasis was on the marital contr and betrothal Subsequently the ceremony moved inside the sacristy the church. An Avunculate is a that occurs between an uncle and his niece or between an aunt and her nephew Such s are illegal in most countries due to incest restrictions However a small number countries have legalized it including Argentina Australia Austria Malaysia, and Russia. (2) liability and enforcement (i) No exemption will extend to the civil liability provisions section 706 the or the administrative enforcement provisions section 704 the (ii) After an exemption has been granted the requirements the applicable state law (except for additional requirements not imposed by Federal law) will constitute the requirements the and this part [Codified to 12 C.F.R § ] § Record retention (a) Retention prohibited information A creditor may retain in its files information that is prohibited by the or this part for use in evaluating applications without violating the or this part if the information was obtained: (1) From any source prior. In an analysis among the Nayar a polyandrous society in India Gough found that the group lacked a husband role in the conventional sense; that unitary role in the west was divided between a non-resident "social father" the woman's children and her lovers who were the ual procreators None these men had legal rights to the woman's child This forced Gough to disregard sexual access as a key element and to define it in terms legitimacy fspring alone: is "a relationship established between a woman and one or more other persons which provides a child born to the woman under circumstances not prohibited by the rules relationship is accorded full birth-status rights common to normal members his society or social stratum."
(8) marital status Except as otherwise permitted or required by law a creditor shall evaluate married and unmarried applicants by the same standards; and in evaluating joint applicants a creditor shall not treat applicants differently based on the existence absence or likelihood a marital relationship between the parties (9) Race color religion national origin sex Except as otherwise permitted or required by law a creditor shall not consider race color religion national origin or sex (or an applicant's or other person's decision not to provide the information) in any aspect a credit transion (c) State property laws A creditor's consideration or application state property laws directly or indirectly affecting creditworthiness does not constitute unlawful discrimination for the purposes the or. § Incentives for self-testing and self-correction (a) General rules (1) Voluntary self-testing and correction The report or results a self-test that a creditor voluntarily conducts (or authorizes) are privileged as provided in this section Data collection required by law or by any governmental authority is not a voluntary self-test (2) Corrective ion required The privilege in this section applies only if the creditor has taken or is taking appropriate corrective ion (3) Other privileges The privilege created by this section does not preclude the assertion any other privilege that may also apply (b) Self-test defined (1) A self-test is any program price or. Online tool that helps how the insurance rules and limits apply to a depositor's specific group deposit accounts—what's insured and what portion (if any) exceeds coverage limits at that bank BankFind BankFind Learn if your bank is insured view locations track history. (Iv) section 1002.5(d)(2) concerning information about income derived from alimony child support or separate maintenance payments; (v) Section 1002.7(d) relating to the signature a spouse or other person; (vi) Section 1002.9 relating to notifications; (vii) Section relating to furnishing credit information; and (viii) Section (b) relating to record retention (d) Government credit (1) Government credit refers to extensions credit made to governments or governmental subdivisions agencies or instrumentalities (2) Applicability regulation Except for § 1002.4(a) the general rule against discrimination on a prohibited basis the requirements this part do not apply to government credit (D) state and Federal laws not affected This section does not alter or annul any provision state property laws laws relating to the disposition decedents' estates or Federal or state banking regulations directed only toward insuring the solvency financial institutions (e) Exemption for state-regulated transions (1) Applications A state may apply to the Bureau for an exemption from the requirements the and this part for any class credit transions within the state The Bureau will grant such an exemption if the Bureau determines that: (i) The class credit transions is subject to state law requirements substantially similar to those the and this part or that applicants are afforded greater protection under state law; and (ii) There is adequate provision for state enforcement Social ties provide people with a sense identity purpose belonging and support. Simply being married as well as the quality one's have been linked to diverse measures health.[clarification needed] (3) limited use privileged information Notwithstanding paragraph (d)(1) this section the self-test report or results and any other information privileged under this section may be obtained and used by an applicant or government agency solely to determine a penalty or remedy after a violation the or this part has been adjudicated or admitted Disclosures for this limited purpose may be used only for the particular proceeding in which the adjudication or admission was made Information disclosed under this paragraph (d)(3) remains privileged under paragraph (d)(1) this section [Codified to 12 C.F.R ] § Enforcement penalties and liabilities It is possible for two people to be recognised as married by a religious or other institution but not by the state and hence without the legal rights and obligations ; or to have a civil deemed invalid and sinful by a religion Similarly a couple may remain married in religious eyes after a civil divorce. (2) permissible inquiries A creditor may request any information concerning an applicant's spouse (or former spouse under paragraph (c)(2)(v) this section) that may be requested about the applicant if: (i) The spouse will be permitted to use the account; (ii) The spouse will be contrually liable on the account; (iii) The applicant is relying on the spouse's income as a basis for repayment the credit requested; (iv) The applicant resides in a community property state or is relying on property located in such a state as a basis for repayment the credit requested; or (v) The applicant is relying on alimony child support or separate maintenance payments from a spouse or former spouse as a basis for repayment the credit requested Islam also commends with the age being whenever the individuals feel ready financially and emotionally In Islam polygyny is allowed while polyandry is not with the specific limitation that a man can have no more than four legal wives at any one time and an unlimited number female slaves as concubines with the requirement that the man is able and willing to partition his time and wealth equally among the respective wives. From the early Christian era (30 to 325 CE) was thought as primarily a private matter with no uniform religious or other ceremony being required. However bishop Ignatius Antioch writing around 110 to bishop Polycarp Smyrna exhorts "[I]t becomes both men and women who marry to form their union with the approval the bishop that their may be according to God and not after their. (T) judgmental system evaluating applicants means any system for evaluating the creditworthiness an applicant other than an empirically derived demonstrably and statistically sound credit scoring system (u) Marital status means the state being unmarried married or separated as defined by applicable state law The term "unmarried" includes persons who are single divorced or widowed (v) Negative for or value in relation to the age elderly applicants means utilizing a for value or weight that is less favorable regarding elderly applicants than the creditor's experience warrants or is less favorable than the for value or weight assigned to the class applicants that are not classified as elderly and are most favored by a creditor on the. (C) for an application made entirely by telephone a creditor satisfies the requirements paragraph (a)(3)(i) this section by an oral statement the ion taken and the applicant's right to a statement reasons for adverse ion (ii) With regard to a business that had gross revenues in excess $1 million in its preceding fiscal year or an extension trade credit credit incident to a foring agreement or other similar types business credit a creditor shall: (A) Notify the applicant within a reasonable time orally or in writing the ion taken; and (B) Provide a written statement the reasons for adverse ion and the ECOA notice specified in paragraph (b)(1) this section if the applicant makes a written request for the reasons within 60 days the creditor's notification (2) determining the scope appropriate corrective ion A creditor must take corrective ion that is reasonably likely to remedy the cause and effect a likely violation by: (i) Identifying the policies or prices that are the likely cause the violation; and (ii) Assessing the extent and scope any violation (3) Types relief Appropriate corrective ion may include both prospective and remedial relief except that to establish a privilege under this section: (i) A creditor is not required to provide remedial relief to a tester used in a self-test; (ii) A creditor is only required to provide remedial relief to an applicant identified by the self-test as one whose rights were more likely than not violated; and Anthropologists have proposed several competing s in an attempt to encompass the wide variety marital prices observed across cultures. Even within Western culture "s have careened from one extreme to another and everywhere in between" (as Evan Gerstmann has. (W) -End credit means credit extended under a plan in which a creditor may permit an applicant to make purchases or obtain loans from time to time directly from the creditor or indirectly by use a credit card check or other device (x) Person means a natural person corporation government or governmental subdivision or agency trust estate partnership cooperative or association (y) Pertinent element creditworthiness in relation to a judgmental system evaluating applicants means any information about applicants that a creditor obtains and considers and that has a demonstrable relationship to a determination creditworthiness [Table Contents] [Previous Page] [Next Page] [Search] 6500 - Consumer Financial Protection Bureau PART 1002EQUAL CREDIT OPPORTUNITY (REGULATION B) Sec (Ii) a disclosure the applicant's right to a statement specific reasons within 30 days if the statement is requested within 60 days the creditor's notification The disclosure shall include the name address and telephone number the person or fice from which the statement reasons can be obtained If the creditor chooses to provide the reasons orally the creditor shall also disclose the applicant's right to have them confirmed in writing within 30 days receiving the applicant's written request for confirmation (3) Notification to business credit applicants For business credit a creditor shall comply with the notification requirements this section in the following manner: The opposite case may happen as well Partners may not have full juridical ing capacity and churches may have less strict limits than the civil jurisdictions This particularly applies to minimum age or physical infirmities.[clarification needed] From an Islamic (Sharia) law perspective the minimum requirements and responsibilities in a Muslim are that the groom provide living expenses ( clothing food maintenance) to the bride and in return the bride's main responsibility is raising children to be proper Muslims All other rights and responsibilities are to be decided between the husband and wife and may even be included as stipulations in the contr before the ually takes place so long as they do not go against the minimum requirements the In many countries today each partner has the choice keeping his or her property separate or combining properties In the latter case called community property when the ends by divorce each owns half In lieu a will or trust property owned by the deceased generally is inherited by the surviving spouse. (C) reporting in response to inquiry If a creditor furnishes credit information in response to an inquiry concerning an account designated to reflect the participation both spouses the creditor shall furnish the information in the name the spouse about whom the information is requested [Codified to 12 C.F.R § ] § Relation to state law (a) Inconsistent state laws Except as otherwise provided in this section this part alters affects or preempts only those state laws that are inconsistent with the and this part and then only to the extent the inconsistency A state law is not inconsistent if it is more protective an applicant Direct Dowry contrasts with bridewealth which is paid by the groom or his family to the bride's parents and with indirect dowry (or dower) which is property given to the bride herself by the groom at the time and which remains under her ownership and control. Polygamy is a which includes more than two partners. When a man is married to more than one wife at a time the relationship is called polygyny and there is no bond between the wives; and when a woman is married to more than one husband at a time it is called polyandry and there is no bond between the husbands If a includes multiple husbands and/or wives it can be called group 
In the US studies have shown that despite egalitarian ideals being common less than half respondents viewed their opposite-sex relationships as equal in power with unequal relationships being more commonly dominated by the male partner. Studies also show that married couples find the highest level satisfion in egalitarian relationships and lowest levels satisfion in wife dominate relationships. In recent years egalitarian or Peer s have been receiving increasing focus and attention politically economically and culturally in a number countries including the United States. In contemporary English common law a is a voluntary contr by a man and a woman in which by agreement they choose to become husband and wife. Edvard Westermarck proposed that "the institution has probably developed out a primeval habit".
As 2000 the average age range was 25–44 years for men and 22–39 years. (G) applications submitted through a third party When an application is made on behalf an applicant to more than one creditor and the applicant expressly accepts or uses credit fered by one the creditors notification ion taken by any the other creditors is not required If no credit is fered or if the applicant does not expressly accept or use the credit fered each creditor taking adverse ion must comply with this section directly or through a third party A notice given by a third party shall disclose the identity each creditor on whose behalf the notice is given [Codified to 12 C.F.R § 1002.9] § Furnishing credit information (a) Designation accounts A creditor that furnishes credit information shall designate: In a Sikh the couple walks around the Guru Granth Sahib holy book four times and a holy man recites from it in the kirtan style The ceremony is known as 'Anand Karaj' and represents the holy union two souls united as one Wicca
Wiccan s are commonly known as handfastings Although handfastings vary for each Wiccan they ten involve honoring Wiccan gods Sex is considered a pious and sacred ivity. The Nazi ban on interracial and interracial sex was ened in September 1935 as part the Nuremberg Laws the Gesetz zum Schutze des deutschen Blutes und der deutschen Ehre (The Law for the Protection German Blood and German Honour) The Nuremberg Laws classified Jews as a race and forbade and extramarital sexual relations at first with people Jewish descent but was later ended to the "Gypsies Negroes or their bastard fspring" and people "German or related blood". Such relations were marked as Rassenschande (lit "race-disgrace") and could be punished by imprisonment (usually followed by deportation to a concentration camp) and even. (B) s For purposes paragraph (a) this section: (1) Consummation The term "consummation" means the time that a consumer becomes contrually obligated on a closed-end credit transion (2) Dwelling The term "dwelling" means a residential structure that contains one to four units whether or not that structure is attached to real property The term includes but is not limited to an individual condominium or cooperative unit and a mobile or other manufured home (3) Valuation The term "valuation" means any estimate the value a dwelling developed in connection with an application for credit [Codified to 12 C.F.R ] [Section amended at 78 Fed Reg 7248 Janu effective January. Then the Lord God made a woman from the rib he had taken out the man and he brought her to the man The man said "This is now bone my bones and flesh my flesh; she shall be called 'woman' for she was taken out man." For this reason a man will leave his father and mother and be united to his wife and they will become one flesh.[Genesis 2:22–24] So they are no longer two but one Therefore what God has joined together let man not separate. Today child s are widespread in parts the world; being most common in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa with more than half the girls in some countries in those regions being married before 18. The incidence child has been falling in most parts the world In developed countries child is outlawed or restricted Girls who marry before 18 are at greater risk becoming victims domestic violence than those who marry later especially when they are married to a much. (B) limitation on information about race color religion national origin or sex A creditor shall not inquire about the race color religion national origin or sex an applicant or any other person in connection with a credit transion except as provided in paragraphs (b)(1) and (b)(2) this section (1) Self-test A creditor may inquire about the race color religion national origin or sex an applicant or any other person in connection with a credit transion for the purpose conducting a self-test that meets the requirements § A creditor that makes such an inquiry shall disclose orally or in writing at the time the information is requested that: (i) The applicant will not be required to provide the information; (ii) The creditor is requesting the information to monitor its compliance with the Federal Equal Credit Opportunity ; The explanation for polyandry in the Himalayan Mountains is related to the scarcity land; the all brothers in a family to the same wife (fraternal polyandry) allows family land to remain int and undivided If every brother married separately and had children family land would be split into unsustainable small plots In Europe this was prevented through the social price impartible inheritance (the dis-inheriting most siblings some whom went on to become celibate monks and priests). (I) is designed and used specifically to determine the extent or effectiveness a creditor's compliance with the or this part; and (ii) Creates data or fual information that is not available and cannot be derived from loan or application files or other records related to credit transions (2) Types information privileged The privilege under this section applies to the report or results the self-test data or fual information created by the self-test and any analysis opinions and conclusions pertaining to the self-test report or results The privilege covers work papers or draft documents as well as final documents (3) Types information not privileged The privilege under this section does not. When the rates applied by the tax code are not based income averaging but rather on the sum individuals' incomes higher rates will usually apply to each individual in a two-earner households in a progressive tax systems This is most ten the case with high-income taxpayers and is another situation called a penalty. (3) other accounts the applicant A creditor may request that an applicant list any account on which the applicant is contrually liable and to provide the name and address the person in whose name the account is held A creditor may also ask an applicant to list the names in which the applicant has previously received credit There is wide cross-cultural variation in the social rules governing the selection a partner for There is variation in the degree to which partner selection is an individual decision by the partners or a collective decision by the partners' kin groups and there is variation in the rules regulating which partners are valid choices The United Nations World Fertility Report 2003 reports that 89% all people get married before age forty-nine. The percent women and men who marry before age forty-nine drops to nearly 50% in some nations and reaches near 100% in other nations. (3) unsecured credit--community property states If a married applicant requests unsecured credit and resides in a community property state or if the applicant is relying on property located in such a state a creditor may require the signature the spouse on any instrument necessary or reasonably believed by the creditor to be necessary under applicable state law to make the community property available to satisfy the debt in the event default if: (i) Applicable state law denies the applicant power to manage or control sufficient community property to qualify for the credit requested under the creditor's standards creditworthiness; and (ii) The applicant does not have sufficient separate property to qualify for the credit requested without regard to community property Polyandry is notably more rare than polygyny though less rare than the figure commonly cited in the Ethnographic Atlas (1980) which listed only those polyandrous societies found in the Himalayan Mountains More recent studies have found 53 societies outside the 28 found in the Himalayans which price polyandry. It is most common in egalitarian societies marked by high male mortality or male absenteeism It is associated with partible paternity the cultural belief that a child can have more than one father. In the early modern period John Calvin and his Protestant colleagues reformulated Christian by ening the Ordinance Geneva which imposed "The dual requirements state registration and church consecration to constitute " for recognition. In Shia Islam may take place without the presence witnesses as is ten the case in temporary Nikah mut‘ah (prohibited in Sunni Islam) but with the consent both the bride and the groom Following the they may consummate their  (2) age receipt public assistance (i) Except as permitted in this paragraph a creditor shall not take into account an applicant's age (provided that the applicant has the capacity to enter into a binding contr) or whether an applicant's income derives from any public assistance program (ii) In an empirically derived demonstrably and statistically sound credit scoring system a creditor may use an applicant's age as a predictive variable provided that the age an elderly applicant is not assigned a negative for or value (iii) In a judgmental system evaluating creditworthiness a creditor may consider an applicant's age or whether an applicant's income derives from any public assistance program only for the purpose determining a pertinent element creditworthiness Introduction same-sex laws has varied by jurisdiction being variously accomplished through a legislative change to laws a court ruling based on constitutional guarantees equality or by direct popular vote (via an initiative or a referendum) The recognition same-sex is a political social civil rights and religious issue in many nations and debates continue to arise over whether same-sex couples should be allowed be required to hold a different status (a civil union) or be denied recognition such rights Allowing same-gender couples to legally marry is considered to be one the most important all LGBT rights. (Iii) a refusal or failure to authorize an account transion at point sale or loan except when the refusal is a termination or an unfavorable change in the terms an account that does not affect all or substantially all a class the creditor's accounts or when the refusal is a denial an application for an increase in the amount credit available under the account; (iv) A refusal to extend credit because applicable law prohibits the creditor from extending the credit requested; or (v) A refusal to extend credit because the creditor does not fer the type credit or credit plan requested (3) An ion that falls within the both paragraphs (c)(1) and (c)(2) this section is governed by paragraph (c)(2) this section Polygyny usually grants wives equal status although the husband may have personal preferences One type de fo polygyny is concubinage where only one woman gets a wife's rights and status while other women remain legal house mistresses. Among ancient Hebrews was a domestic affair and not a religious ceremony; the participation a priest or rabbi was not required. A pragmatic (or 'arranged') is made easier by formal procedures family or group politics A responsible authority sets up or encourages the ; they may indeed engage a pressional matchmaker to find a suitable spouse for an unmarried person The authority figure could be parents family a religious ficial or a group consensus In some cases the authority figure may choose a match for purposes other than marital harmony.